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慎防跌倒
2009-07-15

「跌到大,個個跌到大;不足怪,根本不足怪。」我相信大家對這首歌都耳熟能詳。「跌到大」確實不足為奇,但人年紀大了,一旦跌倒,可真是後果嚴重。根據調查顯示,大部分長者骨折的原因是跌倒引起。要預防,首要就是要提高長者對摔跌的警覺性。隨著長者身體機能老化,四肢協調能力會減弱,反應變慢,甚至可能會有下肢軟弱乏力的問題。除此之外,有些長者認知和記憶力減退,影響了對慎防跌倒的判斷力及警覺性。所以,預防跌倒要從多方面入手,基本上可從兩個層面內外夾攻進行,那就是多做運動及改善家居環境。

防跌倒運動
預防跌倒的運動有很多,主要是改善身體的平衡力,以及伸展、強化肌肉鍛煉,防止肌腱攣縮和保護關節。

除了肌肉鍛煉及改善平衡力外,一些日常長者普及的運動如太極拳或八段錦等,只要正確地練習,對預防跌倒都有莫大的幫助。

改善家居環境
1. 如果地面上有水漬或油漬,應立刻清理。
2. 家裏每個通道都應保持暢通無阻,避免放滿雜物及應定期清理。
3. 保持光線充足,半夜如廁時可使用夜明燈或床頭燈。
4. 睡床及椅子的高度要合適,坐在床邊或椅子上時雙腿要能夠平放在地上。而且應選擇穩固的椅子,避免使用有轆的。
5. 避免使用可移動的抹布作地氈,應改用防滑地氈。
6. 衣著方面,不要穿著過鬆或過長的褲,鞋底要有紋及防滑。需要時應配戴合適的眼鏡。
7. 在濕滑或高低不平的地面上行走是要加倍小心,有需要時可安裝扶手以作支持;另一方面,切勿利用不穩固的傢俬作支撐。

除了多做運動及改善家居環境外,使用正確的助行器具也是很重要的,如助行架或拐杖。如有疑問,應向物理或職業治療師查詢。對長者來說,跌倒是導致功能障礙的眾多原因之一,嚴重的甚至會導致骨折,影響長者的身體機能、獨立生活能力及生活素質。

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